1. Personas are archetypes of users with similar personalities, characteristics, needs, behavior patterns and concerns
  2. Personas are made after analyzing data from research.
  3. Personas are individual representation of the goals and behavior of a hypothesized group of users.
  4. Personas are fictional characters created to represent the different user types that might use a site, brand, or product in a similar way

A persona should include

  1. Age
  2. Educational Background
  3. Personal Skill
  4. Cultutal Background
  5. Computer/Device Skills
  6. Lifestyle
  7. Social Relationship(related to the product domain)
  8. Motivation
  9. Attitudes of looking at the product domain
  10. Habits (consumer habits, behavior)

What Are Personas Used For?

It’s important to keep in mind that wireframes are guides to where the major navigation and content elements of your site are going to appear on the page. Since the goal of the illustrations is not to depict visual design, keep it simple.
  1. Build empathy:When a designer makes a decision, they do so having internalized the persona’s goals, needs and wants.
  2. Develop focus:Having a clear target is important. For projects with more than one user type, a list of personas will help you to prioritize which users are more important than others. Simply defining who your users are makes it more apparent that you can’t design for everyone, or at least not for everyone at once — or else you risk designing for no one. This will help you to avoid the “elastic user,” which is one body that morphs as the designer’s perspective changes.
  3. Communicate and form consensus:More often than not, designers work on multidisciplinary teams with people with vastly different expertise, knowledge, experience and perspectives. As a deliverable, the personas document helps to communicate research findings to people who were not able to be a part of the interviews with users. When all members share the same understanding of their users, then building consensus on important issues becomes that much easier as well..
  4. Make and defend decisions:It help to determine what to design for them. When you see the world from your user’s perspective, then determining what is useful and what is an edge case becomes a lot easier. When a design choice is brought into question, defending it based on real data and research on users (as represented by a persona) is the best way to show others the logical and user-focused reasoning behind the decision.
  5. Measure effectiveness:Various implementations of a design can be “tested” by pairing a persona with a scenario, similar to how we test designs with real users. If someone who is play-acting a persona cannot figure out how to use a feature or gets frustrated, then the users they represent will probably have a difficult time as well.

Persona have 3 goals

  1. Life goalsdescribe a persona’s long-term desires, motivations, and self-image attributes, which cause the persona to connect with a product. These goals form the focus for a product’s overall design, strategy, and branding.
  2. Experience goals:help describe how a persona wants to feel while using a product. These goals provide focus for a product’s visual and aural characteristics, its interactive feel—such as animated transitions and the snap ratio of a physical button—and its industrial design by providing insights into persona motivations that express themselves at the visceral level.
  3. End goals:describe what a persona wants or needs to accomplish. A product or service can help accomplish such goals directly or indirectly. These goals are the focus of a product’s interaction design, information architecture, and the more functional aspects of industrial design. Because of the influence of behavioral processing on both visceral and reflective responses, end goals should be among the most significant factors in determining the overall product experience.

Functional Specification

A Functional Specification of a (computer) system describes the externally-visible behaviour of that system.
What is a Functional Specification?
  1. They are the blueprint for how you want a particular software product to look and work
  2. It details what the finished product will do, how a user will interact with it, and what it will look like
  3. By creating a blueprint of the product first, time and productivity are saved during the development stage because the programmers can program instead of also working out the logic of the user-experience
  4. It will also enable you to manage the expectations of your clients or management, as they will know exactly what to expect.
What is a Functional Specification?
  1. A key benefit of writing up a Functional Spec is in streamlining the development process
  2. The developer working from the spec has, ideally, all of their questions answered about the application and can start building it
  3. And since this is a spec that was approved by the client (supervisor in your case), they are building what the client is expecting
  4. There should be nothing left to guess or interpret when the spec is completed

Scenario Development

Scenario gives us the real world situation to solve for, and a context in which the personas act.It is a document in detail what a user does in a given situation activities, through process and behavior.
Type of Scenarios:: i)Context Scenario ii)Key-Path Scenario iii) Validation Scenario

Context Scenarios:

  1. It is made early in the design life cycle in the requirements.
  2. Goal helps to create scenario on the persona behaves in a given situation.
  3. Narrative descriptions of what a Persona does in a particular situation in order to achieve his/her goal.
  4. Contexual scenarios can be used to integrate all design inputs like goal,mental model,data needs,functional needs and general consideration

Key-path Scenarios:

  1. Made after the framework and some early paper prototype
  2. Only important or key scenarios are covered
  3. These are narratives of user intracts to achive his/her goals
  4. Key path scenarios are iteratively refined along with the design as more and more detail is developed

Validation Scenario:

  1. These scenarios are usually built as the prototyping stage of the design life cycle
  2. It is made for validation and testing purposes
  3. These are narratives of user intracts to achive his/her goals
  4. Key path scenarios are iteratively refined along with the design as more and more detail is developed

Good Context Scenario

  1. Be goal centered not featured centered
  2. Focus on capturing user intraction
  3. Focus on persona and how to achive the goal of user
  4. Do not focus on interface and tools

Intraction Design

Interaction design is in essence a methodology for producing visual representations of an online service that is to be used for early testing/proof-of-concept and later as specifications for designers and developers.
An interaction designer delivers mockups, blueprints and prototypes.

Interaction design principles.

  1. Talk To Your Customers Understanding who they are, what they do for a living, how old they are, how they work, what they know about the Web, how they use it, on what devices, where and so on provides invaluable insight into their pain points that you are out to solve. Setting clear constraints on your design also helps.
  2. Orient The User: Design should tell users three things:
    Where they are,How they got there,Where they can go from here
  3. Simpler Is Better Simplification means reducing the elements on the screen down to the most basic ones, the ones that will facilitate the task that the user has to complete. Start with that as a baseline, and then add ornamentation sparingly. Consider the brand of the website. The brand is a reflection not only of the aesthetic but of the experience. If a website is gorgeous, but its beauty makes completing a transaction impossible, then the website (and brand) will ultimately fail.
  4. Design For A DialogInteraction design puts a heavy focus on feedback loops — in essence, a conversation between the user and the website. As you work out an experience, provide ways for the system to communicate back to the user when they’ve done something right or wrong. Ensure that your experience makes clear when the user has succeeded and when an action is required to complete a transaction.
  5. Workflow: Understanding The Before And AfterInteraction design builds a workflow from page to page and from state to state. As you design each page, consider what the user can do on this page and how the next step in the process fits into the workflow.

Navigation Components

Navigation components allow users to drill down for more information, to navigate to related pages or windows, and to perform specific actions on data and navigate at the same time. The common forms of navigation components are buttons and links, most of which can be used on their own and a few that can only be used in conjunction with other components.

Categories of Navitation

  1. Structural: Connects one page to another based on the hierarchy of the site; on any page you'd expect to be able to move to the page above it and pages below it.
  2. Associative: Connects pages with similar topics and content, regardless of their location in the site; links tend to cross structural boundaries.
  3. Utility: Connects pages and features that help people use the site itself; these may lie outside the main hierarchy of the site, and their only relationship to one another is their function.

Structural Navigation

  1. Main Navigation: Also called: global navigation, primary navigation, main nav.
    The main navigation generally represents the top-level pages of a site's structure—or the pages just below the home page. The links in the main navigation are expected to lead to pages within the site and behave in a very consistent way. Users don't expect to land somewhere completely unrelated when using main navigation links. Changes in navigation from page to page are usually small when using the main navigation.
  2. Local Navigation: Also called: sub-navigation, page-level navigation.
    Local navigation is used to access lower levels in a structure, below the main navigation pages. The term "local" implies "within a given category." On a given page, local navigation generally shows other options at the same level of a hierarchy, as well as the options below the current page.
  3. Utility: Connects pages and features that help people use the site itself; these may lie outside the main hierarchy of the site, and their only relationship to one another is their function.

Associative Navigation

Associative navigation makes important connections across levels of a hierarchy or site structure. While reading about one topic, the user can access to other topics.
  1. Contexual Navigation: Also called: associative links, related links.
    t's situational. Though links may transition to similar pages at the same level within the site, they quite frequently lead to new content areas, different page types, or even a new site. Generally, contextual navigation is placed close to the content of a page. This creates a strong connection between the meaning of a text and the linked related pages.
  2. Adaptive Navigation: Adaptive navigation is a special kind of a contextual navigation. Its links are generated from a process referred to as collaborative or social filtering.
    Adaptive navigation has been most prominently used to make recommendations on e-commerce sites.
  3. Quick Links: Quick links provide access to important content or areas of the site that may not represented in a global navigation.
    Quick links often appear at the top or on the sides of pages. On the home page, they may be prominently positioned in component of their own, but on subsequent pages they may be reduced to a drop-down or dynamic menu.
  4. Footer Navigation Located at the bottom of the page, footer navigation is usually represented by text links.
    Traditionally, footer navigation contains supplementary information not pertinent to main topic of the site, such as copyright information, terms and conditions, and site credits. In this sense, footer navigation doesn't address a specific user need, but addresses a legal requirement for site owners. Footer navigation is often used as a catch-all for various types of content and it can lack consistency in an organizational scheme.

Utility Navigation

Utility navigation connects tools and features that assist visitors in using the site. These pages are generally not part of the main topic hierarchy of the site. For example, a link to a search form or help pages aren't part of the main navigation or local navigation systems.
  1. Extra-site Navigation: Extra-site navigation is typically positioned at the top right of the page. Although generally quite small and represented as plain text, links in extra-site navigation may result in dramatic transitions.
  2. Toolboxes: Toolboxes bring together site options that perform functions—"tools" for doing things on the site.
  3. Linked Logo Web sites very often have a logo at the top of each page.
    It is customary to link the entire image itself to the home page. People may or may not know of this behavior, so some sites add an explicit label underneath or to the side of the logo. In general, linking the logo provides a predictable way to return to a familiar starting point. In some ways it is like an "undo" option within for the navigation process.
  4. Language Selectors: Most often, visitors jump to the same web site, but in a different language. Sometimes, however, the local language site is completely different. Transitions may therefore be small or large. If there are only a few languages to select from, simple links at the top or bottom of the page may suffice.
  5. Internal Page Navigation: Also called: anchor links, jump links.
    Some web pages can be very long. In these cases, it may be advantageous to add internal page links that allow people to jump from one section of a page to another. Internal navigation links basically scroll the page up or down, providing a more efficient way of reaching sections of a longer page. It's customary to then provide a reciprocal link back to the top, so internal page navigation tends to come in pairs of links.




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